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Meaning of X-ray crystallography in the English dictionary

Dictionary
DICTIONARY
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PRONUNCIATION OF X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

X-ray crystallography play
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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

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X-Ray crystallography is a noun.
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A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc.
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WHAT DOES X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY MEAN IN ENGLISH?

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules—X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields. In its first decades of use, this method determined the size of atoms, the lengths and types of chemical bonds, and the atomic-scale differences among various materials, especially minerals and alloys. The method also revealed the structure and function of many biological molecules, including vitamins, drugs, proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA.

definitionDefinition of X-ray crystallography in the English dictionary

The definition of X-ray crystallography in the dictionary is the study and practice of determining the structure of a crystal by passing a beam of X-rays through it and observing and analysing the diffraction pattern produced.

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ENGLISH WORDS THAT BEGIN LIKE X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

X-ray crystallography
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These words share the same root as X-ray crystallography. Click on the words to load more information.

Synonyms and antonyms of X-ray crystallography in the English dictionary of synonyms

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SYNONYMS
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WORDS RELATING TO «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»

X-ray crystallography crystallography tool used identifying atomic molecular structure crystal which crystalline atoms cause beam incident rays diffract into many specific directions measuring angles intensities chemwiki determine arrangement solid space olaf college translations romanian about unit cell ordered structures than described repetition experimental technique that exploits fact imaging have chapter marries science life education national institute general medical overview macromolecular structural medicine series will cover theory practice particularly applies

Translation of «X-ray crystallography» into 20 languages

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TRANSLATION OF X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

Find out the translation of X-ray crystallography to 20 languages with our English multilingual translator.
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The translations of X-ray crystallography from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «X-ray crystallography» in English.
Chinese Spanish English Hindi Arabic Russian Portuguese French German Japanese Korean Vietnamese Italian Polish Ukrainian Romanian Greek Afrikaans Swedish Norwegian
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zh

Translator English - Chinese

X射线晶体学
1,325 millions of speakers
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es

Translator English - Spanish

Cristalografía de rayos X
550 millions of speakers
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en

Translator English - English

X-ray crystallography
510 millions of speakers
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hi

Translator English - Hindi

एक्स रे क्रिस्टलोग्राफी
380 millions of speakers
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ar

Translator English - Arabic

البلورات بالأشعة السينية
280 millions of speakers
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ru

Translator English - Russian

Рентгеновской кристаллографии
278 millions of speakers
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pt

Translator English - Portuguese

A cristalografia de raios - X
270 millions of speakers
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fr

Translator English - French

Cristallographie aux rayons X.
220 millions of speakers
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de

Translator English - German

Röntgenkristallographie
180 millions of speakers
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ja

Translator English - Japanese

X線結晶学
130 millions of speakers
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ko

Translator English - Korean

X - 선 결정학
85 millions of speakers
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vi

Translator English - Vietnamese

X-quang tinh thể học
80 millions of speakers
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it

Translator English - Italian

Cristallografia a raggi X
65 millions of speakers
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pl

Translator English - Polish

Krystalografia rentgenowska
50 millions of speakers
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uk

Translator English - Ukrainian

Рентгенівської кристалографії
40 millions of speakers
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ro

Translator English - Romanian

Cristalografie cu raze X
30 millions of speakers
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el

Translator English - Greek

Κρυσταλλογραφία ακτίνων Χ
15 millions of speakers
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af

Translator English - Afrikaans

X -straal- kristallografie
14 millions of speakers
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sv

Translator English - Swedish

Röntgenkristallografi
10 millions of speakers
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no

Translator English - Norwegian

Røntgenkrystallografi
5 millions of speakers
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Trends of use of X-ray crystallography

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TENDENCIES OF USE OF THE TERM «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»

The term «X-ray crystallography» is regularly used and occupies the 78.356 position in our list of most widely used terms in the English dictionary.
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The map shown above gives the frequency of use of the term «X-ray crystallography» in the different countries.
Principal search tendencies and common uses of X-ray crystallography
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List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «X-ray crystallography».
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FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY» OVER TIME

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The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «X-ray crystallography» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «X-ray crystallography» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.

Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about X-ray crystallography

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10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»

Discover the use of X-ray crystallography in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to X-ray crystallography and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
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An Introduction to X-ray Crystallography
A textbook for the student beginning a serious study of X-ray crystallography.
autorM. M. Woolfson, 1997
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Structure Determination by X-Ray Crystallography
This warmly received third edition is now available in an inexpensive softcover.
autorMarcus Frederick Charles Ladd, Rex Alfred Palmer, 2003
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3
Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography
In this new edition of his essential work, Dr. Jan Drenth, recognized internationally for his numerous contributions to crystallographic research, has provided an up-to-date and technically rigorous introduction to the subject.
autorJan Drenth, 2007
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X-Ray Crystallography of Biomacromolecules: A Practical Guide
Written by one of the most significant contributors to the progress of protein crystallography, this practical guide contains case studies, a troubleshooting section and pointers on data interpretation.
autorAlbrecht Messerschmidt, 2007
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Early Days of X-ray Crystallography
This book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world.
autorAndré Authier, 2013
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Understanding Single-Crystal X-Ray Crystallography
This is the first textbook which examines and explains this method to users with only modest mathematical backgrounds and presents the theory and fundamentals in an easily comprehensible, self-contained way.
autorDennis W. Bennett, 2010
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X-PLOR: Version 3.1 : a System for X-ray Crystallography and NMR
X-PLOR is a highly sophisticated computer program that provides an interface between theoretical foundations and experimental data in structural biology, with specific emphasis on X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance ...
autorAxel T. Brünger, 1992
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Advanced X-ray Crystallography
Computational Studies of Crystal Structure and Bonding, by Angelo Gavezzotti Cryo-Crystallography: Diffraction at Low Temperature and More, by Piero Macchi High-Pressure Crystallography, by Malcolm I. McMahon Chemical X-Ray Photodiffraction ...
autorKari Rissanen, 2012
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X-Ray Crystallography
This well-balanced, and clearly written introduction to the subject features excellent illustrations and study questions throughout.
autorGregory S. Girolami, 2011
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Crystallography Made Crystal Clear: A Guide for Users of ...
This is the most comprehensive and concise reference for beginning Macromolecular crystallographers, written by a leading expert in the field.
autorGale Rhodes, 2010
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10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»

Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term X-ray crystallography is used in the context of the following news items.
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Crystalline sponge method strikes again
X-ray crystallography is uniquely placed to determine molecular structure, providing users with an electron density map and hence an image of their compound. «Royal Society of Chemistry, May 15»
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Kaus Investigates Protein Structure by Using X-Ray Crystallography
X-ray crystallography involves obtaining protein molecules in a crystalline form ... an Xray beam is diffracted by the atoms that make up these protein crystals, ... «Wesleyan Connection, Mar 15»
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New 2-color X-ray laser technique could reveal atomic detail of …
X-ray crystallography has revealed the structures of more than 100,000 proteins since it came into use at synchrotron X-ray facilities decades ago. «Phys.Org, Mar 15»
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Acoustic tweezers device expands the range of X-ray crystallography
"X-ray crystallography has the capability to characterize the atomic-level details of molecules and complex structures. It enables discoveries in virtually all fields ... «Phys.Org, Feb 15»
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Acoustic Tweezers Device Expands the Range of X-ray
X-ray crystallography has the capability to characterize the atomic-level details of molecules and complex structures. It enables discoveries in virtually all fields ... «Newswise, Feb 15»
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MSU to organize national workshop on X-Ray crystallography
VADODARA: The Department of Chemistry of M S University's Faculty of Science is going to organize a national workshop on X-Ray crystallography from ... «Times of India, Jan 15»
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The centenary of the discovery of x-ray crystallography
It did so because x-ray crystallography is 100 years old this year and yet remains relatively unknown to the general public — despite being essential to many ... «The Pharmaceutical Journal, Dec 14»
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New Macromolecular Femtosecond X-ray Crystallography at SLAC …
The new station, called MFX for Macromolecular Femtosecond (X-ray) Crystallography, will primarily focus on solving the 3-D structures of hard-to-study proteins ... «AZoNano.com, Nov 14»
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X-ray crystallography photos capture amazing structures in objects
Photographer Max Alexander had shed light on some of the shapes of substances created by a technique known as x-ray crystallography. Pictured here is the ... «Daily Mail, Nov 14»
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Google honors Dorothy Hodgkin's X-ray vision
The science of X-ray crystallography began in April 1912, when the German physicist Max Laue and his colleagues placed a copper sulfate crystal between an ... «Christian Science Monitor, May 14»
APA
REFERENCE
«ENGLISH DICTIONARY. X-Ray crystallography [online] - Edition 3.3 (Dec 2016). Available <http://englishdictionary.education/en/x-ray-crystallography> »
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